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The information contained on this website is not legal advice and is to be used for informational or historical purposes only. The information contained on this website is a guide to previously decided cases but should not be considered the definitive or last word on any topic or relied upon as legal precedent. Although the information on this website was current on the date it was posted, it has been reproduced from other sources, which, especially case law sources fluctuate frequently. In addition, courts interpret even their own decisions in different ways depending on the unique facts of each case. The information contained on this website is not a substitute for independent legal research or advice by attorneys.

The Fraternal Order of Police and this website do not provide legal advice, counseling, recommendations, or referrals, and should not be relied upon for such. The legal briefs contained on this website were written to address specific facts and legal issues and are not necessarily applicable to other fact patterns in other jurisdictions. No action should be taken based upon the information contained on this website without first consulting with an attorney licensed to practice law in the affected jurisdiction with expertise in the relevant legal issues.

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